ओबीसी-ईडब्ल्यूएस आरक्षण : सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने कहा- सिर्फ उच्च अंक प्राप्त करने वालों को मेधावी नहीं कहा जा सकता

सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने कहा है कि एक परीक्षा अधिक से अधिक किसी व्यक्ति की वर्तमान सक्षमता को प्रतिबिंबित कर सकती है, उसकी क्षमताओं, सामर्थ या उत्कृष्टता के सरगम को नहीं, जो कि अनुभव, बाद के प्रशिक्षण और व्यक्तिगत चरित्र से भी आकार लेते हैं।

जस्टिस डीवाई चंद्रचूड़ की अध्यक्षता वाली पीठ ने मेडिकल प्रवेश (पीजी) परीक्षा में ओबीसी और ईडब्ल्यूएस आरक्षण से जुड़े अपने फैसले में कहा है कि योग्यता का अर्थ अंक तक सीमित नहीं रखा जा सकता। जब परीक्षाएं, संसाधन आवंटन की प्रणालियों से अधिक होने का दावा करती हैं तो वे छात्रों या पेशेवरों के रूप में व्यक्तियों के मूल्य का पता लगाने की एक विकृत प्रणाली को जन्म देती हैं।

सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने कहा है कि हमें मेरिट के अर्थ को फिर से समझने की जरूरत है। उदाहरण के लिए, यदि कोई उच्च अंक प्राप्त करने वाला उम्मीदवार अपनी प्रतिभा का उपयोग अच्छे कार्यों को करने के लिए नहीं करता है, तो उन्हें मेधावी कहना मुश्किल होगा। सिर्फ उच्च अंक प्राप्त करने वालों को मेधावी नहीं कहा जा सकता।

सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने कहा है कि यदि योग्यता एक सामाजिक अच्छाई है जिसे संरक्षित किया जाना चाहिए तो हमें पहले योग्यता की सामग्री की आलोचनात्मक जांच करनी चाहिए। परीक्षा में अंक उत्कृष्टता या क्षमता का एकमात्र निर्धारक नहीं हैं। भले ही तर्क के लिए एक पल के लिए मान लिया जाए कि अंक(स्कोर) उत्कृष्टता को दर्शाते हैं तो भी यह एकमात्र पैमाना नहीं है। हमें योग्यता के वितरण परिणामों को भी देखना चाहिए।

लोक सेवा के प्रति समर्पण योग्यता का चिह्न
शीर्ष अदालत ने कहा है कि कार्यों के औचित्य और लोक सेवा के प्रति समर्पण को योग्यता के चिह्न के रूप में भी देखा जाना चाहिए, जिसका मूल्यांकन किसी प्रतियोगी परीक्षा में नहीं किया जा सकता। अभाव की स्थितियों से खुद को ऊपर उठाने के लिए आवश्यक धैर्य और लचीलापन व्यक्तिगत क्षमता को दर्शाता है।
योग्यता को सिर्फ व्यक्तिगत क्षमता तक सीमित नहीं होना चाहिए
शीर्ष अदालत ने कहा है कि शैक्षिक संसाधनों को आवंटित करने के लिए परीक्षा एक आवश्यक और सुविधाजनक तरीका है लेकिन वे योग्यता के प्रभावी मार्कर नहीं हैं। जिस तरह से हम योग्यता को समझते हैं वह व्यक्तिगत क्षमता तक सीमित नहीं होनी चाहिए बल्कि इसे एक ‘सामाजिक अच्छाई’ के रूप में देखा जाना चाहिए, जो समानता को आगे बढ़ाता है। क्योंकि यही वह मूल्य है जिसे हमारा संविधान मानता है।

यह ध्यान रखना महत्वपूर्ण है कि यहां समानता का न केवल पुनर्वितरण आयाम है बल्कि इसमें प्रत्येक व्यक्ति के मूल्य और गरिमा को पहचानना भी शामिल है। योग्यता की सामग्री समाज में हमारे मूल्य से रहित नहीं हो सकती है। शीर्ष अदालत  के कहा है कि इन्हीं आधार पर हमें योग्यता की संकीर्ण परिभाषा (गैर-संदर्भित व्यक्तिगत उपलब्धि) को स्वीकार करना मुश्किल लगता है। हमारा मानना है कि ऐसी परिभाषा वास्तविक समानता की प्राप्ति में बाधा डालती है।

सुप्रीम कोर्ट में याचिका देकर चुनाव टालने की मांग
कोरोना के ओमिक्रॉन वैरिएंट के प्रसार को देखते हुए सुप्रीम कोर्ट में एक जनहित याचिका दायर उत्तर प्रदेश, मणिपुर, उत्तराखंड, गोवा और पंजाब में विधानसभा चुनावों को स्थगित करने की मांग की गई है। वकील अभिषेक यादव और देवेंद्र सिंह के जरिये कांवरिया सेना संगठन द्वारा दायर याचिका में कहा गया है कि मौजूदा हालात को देखते हुए आपदा प्रबंधन अधिनियम-2005 के प्रावधानों के तहत चुनावों को टाल दिया जाए। साथ ही कोरोना से मृतकों के परिजनों को आपदा कानून के तहत सहायता प्रदान की जाए। उन्होंने कहा है कि जन प्रतिनिधित्व कानून-1951 में असाधारण स्थिति में चुनावों को स्थगित करने का प्रावधान है।

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