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भारत के सुप्रीम कोर्ट का एक फैसला देश की हजारों यौनकर्मियों के लिए मुस्कुराहट लेकर आया है. इस फैसले के चलते वे लोग ना सिर्फ वोट दे सकेंगी बल्कि उन्हें सरकारी मदद भी मिल पाएगी.मानव तस्करी की शिकार के संध्या करीब पांच साल पहले इस पेशे में धकेल दी गईं. 28 साल की संध्या दो बच्चों की मां हैं और पेशा छोड़कर कोई और काम खोजने की कोशिश कर रही हैं. लेकिन पहचान पत्र ना होने के कारण उनकी कोशिश कामयाब नहीं हो पा रही है. वह बताती हैं, “मजदूरी ही मिल पाती है. लॉकडाउन में तो हमें बहुत मुश्किल हुई. मदद भी नहीं मिल पाई. अगर पहचान पत्र मिल जाएगा तो हमारी मुश्किल थोड़ी तो कम होगी.” सुप्रीम कोर्ट का पिछले हफ्ते आया एक फैसला संध्या जैसी लाखों महिलाओं की जिंदगी बदल सकता है. सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने केंद्र और राज्य सरकारों को आदेश दिया है कि पंजीकृत यौनकर्मियों को राशन कार्ड और वोटर आईडी कार्ट जारी किए जाएं और उनका आधार पंजीकरण करायें.

 

फैसला एक डॉक्टर समरजीत जना की याचिका पर आया है, जिनकी इसी साल मई में कोविड के कारण मौत हो गई थी. इस याचिका की वकील तृप्ति टंडन कहती हैं, “सालों से यौनकर्मियों को सरकारों की तरफ से पूरी तरह नजरअंदाज किया जाता रहा है. यह आदेश उन्हें अपने फैसले लेने की सुविधा दे पाएगा.” सही संख्या का नहीं पता अधिकारियों का अनुमान है कि भारत में लगभग 10 लाख यौनकर्मी हैं. उनमें से ज्यादातर अब तक वोट नहीं डाल सकतीं. उनके पास बैंक खाते नहीं हैं और सरकार खाने पर जो सब्सिडी देती हैं, उन्हें मिल ही नहीं पाती क्योंकि उनके पास सही दस्तावेज नहीं हैं. लेकिन यह संख्या और ज्यादा हो सकती है. इस क्षेत्र में काम करने वाले सामाजिक कार्यकर्ताओं का अनुमान है कि देश की आधी से ज्यादा यौनकर्मी, जो बेहद गरीब पृष्ठभूमि से हैं, अब तक रजिस्टर्ड नहीं हैं और सरकारी आंकड़ों में शामिल ही नहीं हैं. इसी कारण आंध्र प्रदेश में कुछ संस्थाओं ने राज्य सरकार से यौनकर्मियों की दोबारा गणना का अनुरोध किया है. आंध्र प्रदेश में काम करने वाली संस्था हेल्प (HELP) के संस्थापक राममोहन नीमाराजू कहते हैं, “आधिकारिक दस्तावेजों में लगभग एक लाख यौनकर्मी हैं जबकि राज्य में दो लाख से ज्यादा यौनकर्मी हैं. इसीलिए हमने दोबारा गणना का अनुरोध किया है.

” सुप्रीम कोर्ट के पिछले हफ्ते आए फैसले के कारण यह गणना और अहम हो जाती है. नीमाराजू कहते हैं, “राशन कार्ड मिल जाने से उन्हें दो रुपये किलो चावल मिल सकेगा. वे जमीन खरीद सकेंगी और अगर उनके बच्चे होते हैं तो स्कूल में बिना परेशानी दाखिला दिला सकेंगी. इसके फायदों का कोई अंत नहीं है.” भारत में यौनकर्म वैध है. लेकिन ज्यादातर यौनकर्मी गरीब हैं और उनका हर तरह से शोषण होता है. ज्यादातर मामलों में परिवार उन्हें त्याग देता है और उनके पास कोई आधिकारिक दस्तावेज नहीं होता जिसके जरिए वे पहचान पत्र के लिए अप्लाई कर सकें. वे आमतौर पर जगह बदलती रहती हैं या अवैध ठिकानों पर रहती हैं जहां से घर के पते का कोई प्रमाण पत्र बनवाना भी असंभव हो जाता है. कोविड की मार 2019 में कोविड-19 महामारी के प्रकोप का दुनियाभर की यौनकर्मियों पर बुरा असर हुआ. उनकी आय के साध रातोरात खत्म हो गए. बहुत सी यौनकर्मियों को वायरस फैलाने के लिए जिम्मेदार बताकर मारा-पीटा भी गया.

महामारी के दौरान भारत में असंगठित क्षेत्र के कामगारों के लिए सरकार की तरफ से नकद और खाद्य सामग्री की मदद की योजना चलाई गई थी. लेकिन अधिकतर यौनकर्मी इस मदद से महरूम रहीं क्योंकि उनके पास पहचान पत्र या कोई अन्य आधिकारिक दस्तावेज नहीं था. सरकारी संस्था नेशनल एड्स कंट्रोल ऑर्गनाइजेन (NACO) यौनकर्मियों की स्वास्थ्य जांच करती है और उन्हें मुफ्त कंडोम मुहैया कराती है. लेकिन ये सुविधाएं भी रजिस्टर्ड यौनकर्मियों को ही मिल पाती हैं. संस्था का कहना है कि यौनकर्मियों की सटीक गणना की कोशिश की जा रही है. नाको की उप महानिदेशक शोबीनी राजन कहती हैं, “हमारे पास लगभग दस लाख यौनकर्मी पंजीकृत हैं. मैं ये तो नहीं कह सकती कि और यौनकर्मी हैं ही नहीं लेकिन हम इनके साथ शुरुआत कर सकते हैं.” राजन कहती हैं कि नाको ने पिछले एक साल में करीब पांच लाख ऐसी यौनकर्मियों को खाना उपलब्ध करवाया है जिनके पास पहचान पत्र नहीं थे. अधिकारी कहते हैं कि अब इन यौनकर्मियों का भी पंजीकरण हो गया है और उन्हें सरकारी मदद नियमित रूप से मिल रही है. राजन बताती हैं, “हमने अपनी सभी राज्य इकाइयों को निर्देश दिया कि स्थानीय सामाजिक कार्यकर्ताओं के साथ मिलकर काम करें ताकि सभी यौनकर्मियों की सही पहचान हो सके.

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